Diabetic retinopathy and poor eyesight. Typos ...
- Nov 10, 2017
- Basic Beliefs
You are drifting into a deep abyss. Volition and choice?
In the early 1900s there was a g horse tat appeared to undeestand human speech from his owner. It caused a theological and theosophical stir in the day.
In front of people the horse seemd to undesrtand artculate speech. It was a sensation. Somebody got the idea of putting an opaquebarrier between the horse and speaker. The horse did not respond to speech.
It turned out the horse leaned to respond to the owners body language and tone of voice. It is part of the fight or flight respnse in humans and other critters. We can read intent of an animal by posture and vocalizations.
Run the experiment. Turn your back and in an even tone of voivr say your dog
Fetch my slippers'.
As I posted both cats and dogs are smart problem solvers. There are feral dogs that learn to use subways and bisees to go to s[ecific places, we documented. As I said, our company cat lerned to associate the sound of frodhe door openig with food.
There is video of Merkats that have a cooperative relationship with a bird species. The birds emit a sound for a predator. In return the Merkats leave food for the birds.
There are monkeys who vocalizations for different predators. There is video of a mankey who when the troop is foraging will utter a false warning. When the others run away he picks up the food others have gathered.
There was a parrot in a hose I was sharing. I would start to whistle while rocking side to side in a rhythm. The parrot woad mimic the whistle and start rocking side on her perch.
Non human communication is common youkave to run a controlled experiment to show animals recognize articulate speech. There are parrots who seem to actually use leaned speech in new ways. Hard to actually prove it is what we call cognition and speech.
I read a dolhins researcher believes in a group dolphins have sounds, names, for individuals.
There is a chimp that was taught sign language and appeared to be able to use words to deal with new situations, and passed it on to others. Planet Of The Apes here we come?
Washoe (c. September 1965 – October 30, 2007) was a female common chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn to communicate using American Sign Language (ASL) as part of an animal research experiment on animal language acquisition.
Washoe learned approximately 350 signs of ASL, also teaching her adopted son Loulis some signs. She spent most of her life at Central Washington University.
Clever Hans (German: der Kluge Hans; fl. 1907) was a horse that was claimed to have performed arithmetic and other intellectual tasks. After a formal investigation in 1907, psychologist Oskar Pfungst demonstrated that the horse was not actually performing these mental tasks, but was watching the reactions of his trainer. He discovered this artifact in the research methodology, wherein the horse was responding directly to involuntary cues in the body language of the human trainer, who was entirely unaware that he was providing such cues. In honour of Pfungst's study, the anomalous artifact has since been referred to as the Clever Hans effect and has continued to be important knowledge in the observer-expectancy effect and later studies in animal cognition. Pfungst was an assistant to German philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf, who incorporated the experience with Hans into his further work on animal psychology and his ideas o
The Clever Hans effectAfter Pfungst had become adept at giving Hans performances himself, and was fully aware of the subtle cues which made them possible, he discovered that he would produce these cues involuntarily regardless of whether he wished to exhibit or suppress them. Recognition of this phenomenon has had a large effect on experimental design and methodology for all experiments whatsoever involving sentient subjects, including humans.
The risk of Clever Hans effects is one reason why comparative psychologists normally test animals in isolated apparatus, without interaction with them. However this creates problems of its own, because many of the most interesting phenomena in animal cognition are only likely to be demonstrated in a social context, and in order to train and demonstrate them, it is necessary to build up a social relationship between trainer and animal. This point of view has been strongly argued by Irene Pepperberg in relation to her studies of parrots (Alex), and by Allen and Beatrix Gardner in their study of the chimpanzee Washoe. If the results of such studies are to gain universal acceptance, it is necessary to find some way of testing the animals' achievements which eliminates the risk of Clever Hans effects. However, simply removing the trainer from the scene may not be an appropriate strategy, because where the social relationship between trainer and subject is strong, the removal of the trainer may produce emotional responses preventing the subject from performing. It is therefore necessary to devise procedures where none of those present knows what the animal's likely response may be.
The Clever Hans Effect has also been observed in drug-sniffing dogs. A study at University of California, Davis revealed that cues can be telegraphed by the handler to the dogs, resulting in false positives.
Pet owners end up seeing a pet as a human. The pet understands them.